[ - ] "Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses."
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2017 Apr;78(4): p. 482-494
(Neul A, Schrödl W, Marschang RE, Bjick T, Truyen U, von Buttlar H, Pees M.)
To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.
42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes.
Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed.
Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.
[ - ] "Anti-Muellerian Hormone, inhibin A, gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors in bull calves after partial scrotal resection, orchidectomy and Burdizzo castration"
Theriogenology;january 2017,Vol. 87 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.08.030
(Dragos Scarlet, Christine Aurich, Natascha Ille, Ingrid Walter, Corinna Weber, Dagmar Pieler, Walter Peinhopf, Peter Wohlsein, Jörg Aurich)
Eight-week-old calves were either castrated by partial scrotal resection without removing the testes (SR; n=10), Burdizzo clamp (BZ; n=10), orchidectomy (OR; n=10), or were left gonad-intact as controls (CO; n=10). Concentrations of Anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH), inhibin A, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma were determined from 16 to 48 weeks of age. At 18 months, testes of SR, BZ and CO bulls were obtained and the immunolocalization of LH and FSH receptors and AMH analysed. Concentration of AMH in plasma of CO and SR bulls decreased with increasing age (p<0.001). A similar AMH profile in CO and SR indicates that SR did not induce a true cryptorchid state. In groups OR and BZ, AMH was undetectable. Plasma inhibin concentration was higher in groups CO and SR than BZ and OR (p<0.001). Plasma LH and FSH concentrations decreased over time (p<0.001) and were higher in groups BZ and OR than SR and CO (p<0.001). In the testes, immunolabelling for AMH existed in Sertoli cells of CO and SR, but not BZ bulls. FSH receptors were localized in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, spermatocytes and the epididymis of CO and SR animals, whereas LH receptors were restricted to Leydig cells. In BZ animals, FSH and LH receptors and AMH were absent, indicating complete testicular degeneration. In conclusion, AMH is a more reliable marker for the presence of testicular tissue in bulls than inhibin. Scrotal resection did not induce a true inguinal cryptorchid state but affected testicular responsiveness to gonadotropic stimulation.
[ - ] "Detection of nidoviruses in live pythons and Boas"
Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere/Heimtiere 1/2017;45 S.22-26
(Rachel E.Marschang; Ekaterina Kolesnik)
English PDF version of the article
Objectives: Nidoviruses have recently been described as a putative cause of severe respiratory disease in pythons in the USA and Europe. The objective of this study was to establish the use of a conventional PCR for the detection of nidoviruses in samples from live animals and to extend the list of susceptible species. Materials and methods: A PCR targeting a portion of ORF1a of python nidoviruses was used to detect nidoviruses in diagnostic samples from live boas and pythons. A total of 95 pythons, 84 boas and 22 snakes of unknown species were included in the study. Samples tested included oral swabs and whole blood. Results: Nidoviruses were detected in 27.4% of the pythons and 2.4% of the boas tested. They were most commonly detected in ball pythons (Python [P.] regius) and Indian rock pythons (P. molurus), but were also detected for the first time in other python species, including Morelia spp. and Boa constrictor. Oral swabs were most commonly tested positive.
[ - ] "TGF-β1 serum concentrations and receptor expressions in the lens capsular of dogs with diabetes mellitus "
Open Veterinary Journal, (2017), Vol. 7(1): 12-15, PDF
(Stephan Neumann, Jens Linek, Gerhard Loesenbeck, Julia Schüttler and Sonja Gaedke)
Tissue fibrosis as complication of diabetes mellitus is known in humans. Because TGF-β1induces fibrosis and is elevated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus we measured this growth factor in serum of dogs with diabetes mellitus and compared it with healthy dogs and those with fibrotic diseases. Further we measured the expression of TGF-β1receptor on lens capsule to investigate possible association between diabetes mellitus and cataract associated alterations. TGF-β1 was measured in serum of 12 dogs with diabetes mellitus, 20 healthy controls and 12 dogs with fibrotic diseases. Dogs with diabetes mellitus and fibrotic diseases have significantly increased TGF-β1 serum concentrations compared to healthy controls. Some dogs with diabetes mellitus showed increased expression of TGF-β1 receptor in lens capsule. Based on our observations we can conclude that TGF-β1 elevation in dogs with diabetes mellitus may induces complications of the disease and may participates on lens alteration.
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